Papal

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Whether you shop or sell online, PayPal™ makes it fast, safe and easy. Use today. Many translated example sentences containing "papal" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Worttrennung: pa·pal, keine Steigerung. Aussprache: IPA: [paˈpaːl]: Hörbeispiele: —: Reime: aːl. Bedeutungen: [1] Religion: päpstlich. Herkunft: Beispiele. Mit PayPal einfach und sicher bargeldlos bezahlen, Zahlungen empfangen & Geld senden. Profitieren auch Sie vom Käuferschutz & Verkäuferschutz. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für papal im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

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Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'papal' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Übersetzung für 'papal' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. papal Bedeutung, Definition papal: 1. relating to the position or authority of the Pope (= the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. Papal bulls are headed N. Latin Church, Dauer Konto Paypal Auf known as the Western Churchthe largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Churchand the original and still major part https://truefallacy.co/www-casino-online/aus-was-besteht-koks.php Western Christianity. Click the following article up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed. Main article: Politics of Vatican City. Government Institutes. According to Catholic traditionPapal apostolic see [9] of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the 1st century.

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Cookie-Einstellungen ändern Cookies akzeptieren. In addition, two small berlins for use within the Vatican Gardens and a landau with four seats are also on display.. Aside from the aforementioned " protocol " carriages, two historical travelling berlin carriages are displayed: one used by Pope Pius IX in his re-entry from exile after the revolts of the Roman Republic, and ther other for the last trip of a " Pope King " in the papal territories of Romagna.. papal Bedeutung, Definition papal: 1. relating to the position or authority of the Pope (= the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'papal' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. truefallacy.co | Übersetzungen für 'papal' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für papal im Online-Wörterbuch truefallacy.co (​Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'papal' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.

Though the pope is the diocesan bishop of Rome, he delegates most of the day-to-day work of leading the diocese to the Cardinal Vicar , who assures direct episcopal oversight of the diocese's pastoral needs, not in his own name but in that of the pope.

Though the progressive Christianisation of the Roman Empire in the 4th century did not confer upon bishops civil authority within the state, the gradual withdrawal of imperial authority during the 5th century left the pope the senior imperial civilian official in Rome, as bishops were increasingly directing civil affairs in other cities of the Western Empire.

This status as a secular and civil ruler was vividly displayed by Pope Leo I 's confrontation with Attila in The first expansion of papal rule outside of Rome came in with the Donation of Sutri , which in turn was substantially increased in , when the Frankish ruler Pippin the Younger gave to the pope the land from his conquest of the Lombards.

The pope may have utilized the forged Donation of Constantine to gain this land, which formed the core of the Papal States.

This document, accepted as genuine until the 15th century, states that Constantine the Great placed the entire Western Empire of Rome under papal rule.

In , Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish ruler Charlemagne as Roman Emperor , a major step toward establishing what later became known as the Holy Roman Empire ; from that date onward the popes claimed the prerogative to crown the Emperor, though the right fell into disuse after the coronation of Charles V in As mentioned above, the pope's sovereignty over the Papal States ended in with their annexation by Italy.

Popes like Alexander VI , an ambitious if spectacularly corrupt politician, and Pope Julius II , a formidable general and statesman, were not afraid to use power to achieve their own ends, which included increasing the power of the papacy.

Papal bulls , interdict , and excommunication or the threat thereof have been used many times to increase papal power. In , Innocent III placed England under interdict until King John made his kingdom a fiefdom to the Pope, complete with yearly tribute , saying, "we offer and freely yield The Bull Regnans in Excelsis in excommunicated Elizabeth I of England and declared that all her subjects were released from all allegiance to her.

The Bull, Inter gravissimas , in established the Gregorian calendar. Under international law, a serving head of state has sovereign immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of other countries, though not from that of international tribunals.

International law treats the Holy See , essentially the central government of the Catholic Church, as the juridical equal of a state.

It is distinct from the state of Vatican City , existing for many centuries before the foundation of the latter. It is common for publications and news media to use "the Vatican", "Vatican City", and even "Rome" as metonyms for the Holy See.

Most countries of the world maintain the same form of diplomatic relations with the Holy See that they entertain with other states. Even countries without those diplomatic relations participate in international organizations of which the Holy See is a full member.

It is as head of the state-equivalent worldwide religious jurisdiction of the Holy See not of the territory of Vatican City that the U.

Justice Department ruled that the pope enjoys head-of-state immunity. It was in relation to the latter that, in November , the United States Court of Appeals in Cincinnati decided that a case over sexual abuse by Catholic priests could proceed, provided the plaintiffs could prove that the bishops accused of negligent supervision were acting as employees or agents of the Holy See and were following official Holy See policy.

In April , there was press coverage in Britain concerning a proposed plan by atheist campaigners and a prominent barrister to have Pope Benedict XVI arrested and prosecuted in the UK for alleged offences, dating from several decades before, in failing to take appropriate action regarding Catholic sex abuse cases and concerning their disputing his immunity from prosecution in that country.

The pope's claim to authority is either disputed or not recognised at all by other churches. The reasons for these objections differ from denomination to denomination.

Primacy is regarded as a consequence of the pope's position as bishop of the original capital city of the Roman Empire , a definition explicitly spelled out in the 28th canon of the Council of Chalcedon.

These churches see no foundation to papal claims of universal immediate jurisdiction , or to claims of papal infallibility.

Several of these churches refer to such claims as ultramontanism. In calling the pope the "Antichrist", the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century.

Not only dissidents and heretics but even saints had called the bishop of Rome the "Antichrist" when they wished to castigate his abuse of power.

What Lutherans understood as a papal claim to unlimited authority over everything and everyone reminded them of the apocalyptic imagery of Daniel 11 , a passage that even prior to the Reformation had been applied to the pope as the Antichrist of the last days.

Protestant denominations of Christianity reject the claims of Petrine primacy of honor, Petrine primacy of jurisdiction, and papal infallibility.

These denominations vary from simply not accepting the pope's claim to authority as legitimate and valid, to believing that the pope is the Antichrist [] from 1 John , the Man of Sin from 2 Thessalonians —12, [] and the Beast out of the Earth from Revelation — This sweeping rejection is held by, among others, some denominations of Lutherans: Confessional Lutherans hold that the pope is the Antichrist, stating that this article of faith is part of a quia "because" rather than quatenus "insofar as" subscription to the Book of Concord.

The WELS still holds to this statement. Historically, Protestants objected to the papacy's claim of temporal power over all secular governments, including territorial claims in Italy, [] the papacy's complex relationship with secular states such as the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and the autocratic character of the papal office.

Groups sometimes form around antipopes , who claim the Pontificate without being canonically and properly elected to it. Traditionally, this term was reserved for claimants with a significant following of cardinals or other clergy.

The existence of an antipope is usually due either to doctrinal controversy within the Church heresy or to confusion as to who is the legitimate pope at the time schism.

Briefly in the 15th century, three separate lines of popes claimed authenticity see Papal Schism. Even Catholics do not all agree whether certain historical figures were popes or antipopes.

Though antipope movements were significant at one time, they are now overwhelmingly minor fringe causes. In the earlier centuries of Christianity, the title "Pope", meaning "father", had been used by all bishops.

Some popes used the term and others did not. Eventually, the title became associated especially with the Bishop of Rome.

In a few cases, the term is used for other Christian clerical authorities. In English, Catholic priests are still addressed as "father", but the term "pope" is reserved for the head of the church hierarchy.

This name, based on the black colour of his cassock, was used to suggest a parallel between him and the "White Pope" since the time of Pope Pius V the popes dress in white and the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples formerly called the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith , whose red cardinal's cassock gave him the name of the "Red Pope" in view of the authority over all territories that were not considered in some way Catholic.

In the present time this cardinal has power over mission territories for Catholicism, essentially the Churches of Africa and Asia, [] but in the past his competence extended also to all lands where Protestants or Eastern Christianity was dominant.

Some remnants of this situation remain, with the result that, for instance, New Zealand is still in the care of this Congregation. Some new religious movements within Christianity, especially those that have disassociated themselves from the Catholic Church yet retain a Catholic hierarchical framework, have used the designation "pope" for a founder or current leader.

The Cao Dai , a Vietnamese faith that duplicates the Catholic hierarchy, is similarly headed by a pope. Although the average reign of the pope from the Middle Ages was a decade, a number of those whose reign lengths can be determined from contemporary historical data are the following:.

However, since he is regarded as an anti-pope , he is not mentioned in the list above. There have been a number of popes whose reign lasted about a month or less.

In the following list the number of calendar days includes partial days. Thus, for example, if a pope's reign commenced on 1 August and he died on 2 August, this would count as having reigned for two calendar days.

Stephen 23—26 March died of stroke three days after his election, and before his consecration as a bishop. He is not recognized as a valid pope, but was added to the lists of popes in the 15th century as Stephen II , causing difficulties in enumerating later popes named Stephen.

On the death of Zachary the Roman priest Stephen was elected; but, since four days later he died, before his consecratio , which according to the canon law of the time was the true commencement of his pontificate, his name is not registered in the Liber Pontificalis nor in other lists of the popes.

Published every year by the Roman Curia , the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII , Pope Benedict V and some midth-century popes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Papal. This article is about the leader of the Catholic Church.

For the popes of other churches, and other uses, see Pope disambiguation. For the incumbent, see Pope Francis.

For previous popes, see List of popes. Leader of the Catholic Church. Pontifex maximus. Pope Francis in Rome , Saint Peter.

Liturgical titles. Acolyte Consecrator Lector Subdeacon. Administrative and pastoral titles. Consecrated and professed titles.

Additional titles. Organization titles. Main article: History of the papacy. See also: Primacy of Simon Peter. Main article: Papal conclave.

Main article: Papal resignation. See also: Patriarch and Pentarchy. The signature of Pope Francis. Main article: Papal regalia and insignia.

Main articles: Primacy of the Bishop of Rome and Papal infallibility. Vatican Bank Doe v. Politics and government.

Secretary : Pietro Parolin. President: Dominique Mamberti. Foreign relations. Vatican Museums.

Main article: Politics of Vatican City. Main article: Historicism Christianity. Main articles: Antipope and Western Schism.

Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 11 August Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 February The Catholic Encyclopedia.

New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 26 May Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.

Retrieved 14 April Archived from the original on 22 July Archived from the original on 15 March Keepers of the keys of heaven: a history of the papacy.

Introduction One of the most enduring and influential of all human institutions, No one who seeks to make sense of modern issues within Christendom — or, indeed, world history — can neglect the vital shaping role of the popes.

Basic Books. World history. In Herbermann, Charles ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. See Treaty of Tordesillas and Inter caetera. Editora Folio.

Archived from the original on 4 May November Retrieved 6 November January Retrieved 21 January Evangelical Dictionary of Theology.

Baker Academic. A Brief History of the Western World. Cengage Learning. The Eucharistic Prayers of the Roman Rite. Liturgical Press. A History of the Popes.

Government Institutes. Papal Primacy. Oxford English Dictionary Online. September The Catholic church: its origins and nature.

A New Eusebius. Catholic Encyclopedia: The Fathers of the Church. New Advent. Crossroads Initiative. The same writer quotes with approval the words of Joseph Ratzinger : "In Phanar, on 25 July , when Patriarch Athenegoras addressed the visiting pope as Peter's successor, the first in honor among us, and the presider over charity, this great church leader was expressing the essential content of the declarations of the primacy of the first millennium" Clapsis, p.

This Rock. Catholic Answers. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 22 May Moreover, during the 2nd century the Roman community's leadership was evident in its generous alms to poorer churches.

About , they erected monuments to their martyred apostles, to Peter in a necropolis on the Vatican Hill, to Paul on the road to Ostia, at the traditional sites of their burial.

Roman bishops were already conscious of being custodians of the authentic tradition of true interpretation of the apostolic writings. In the conflict with Gnosticism Rome played a decisive role, and likewise in the deep division in Asia Minor created by the claims of the Montanist prophets.

Crossroads Productions. The Birth of the Church. Likewise let the churches in Antioch and the other provinces retain their privileges" Canons of the Council of Nicaea Archived 15 February at the Wayback Machine.

Editora Paulinas. Geography of Religion. National Geographic Society. Corso di Storia, per le scuole medie superiori. Editora Principato.

Medieval Civilization. Gilberto Cotrim. The Catholic Church Through the Ages. Paulist Press. The First Crusaders. Cambridge University Press.

Cross, FL, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 June Printing, Propaganda and Martin Luther.

Fortress Press. Commentary on the Gospels. Retrieved 23 May It is readily answered by the Papists, that "Peter was the rock.

If he had intimated that the church should be built upon Peter, it had been plainer and more agreeable to be the vulgar idiom to have said, "Thou art Peter, and upon thee I will build my church.

Word Pictures of the New Testament. Exposition of the Whole Bible. Wesley's Notes on the Bible. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. On this rock — Alluding to his name, which signifies a rock, namely, the faith which thou hast now professed; I will build my Church — But perhaps when our Lord uttered these words, he pointed to himself, in like manner as when he said, Destroy this temple, John ; meaning the temple of his body.

And it is certain, that as he is spoken of in Scripture, as the only foundation of the Church, so this is that which the apostles and evangelists laid in their preaching.

It is in respect of laying this, that the names of the twelve apostles not of St. Peter only were equally inscribed on the twelve foundations of the city of God, Revelation The gates of here — As gates and walls were the strength of cities, and as courts of judicature were held in their gates, this phrase properly signifies the power and policy of Satan and his instruments.

Shall not prevail against it — Not against the Church universal, so as to destroy it. And they never did. There hath been a small remnant in all ages.

Scofield's Reference Notes. There is the Greek a play upon the words, "thou art Peter petros-- literally 'a little rock', and upon this rock Petra I will build my church.

Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible. First, Some by this rock understand Peter himself as an apostle, the chief, though not the prince, of the twelve, senior among them, but not superior over them.

The church is built upon the foundation of the apostles, Ephesians The first stones of that building were laid in and by their ministry; hence their names are said to be written in the foundations of the new Jerusalem, Revelation Thirdly, Others by this rock understand this confession which Peter made of Christ, and this comes all to one with understanding it of Christ himself.

It was a good confession which Peter witnessed, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God; the rest concurred with him in it.

Take away this truth itself, and the universal church falls to the ground. If Christ be not the Son of God, Christianity is a cheat, and the church is a mere chimera; our preaching is vain, your faith is vain, and you are yet in your sins, 1 Corinthians — If Jesus be not the Christ, those that own him are not of the church, but deceivers and deceived.

Take away the faith and confession of this truth from any particular church, and it ceases to be a part of Christ's church, and relapses to the state and character of infidelity.

This is articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesia—that article, with the admission or the denial of which the church either rises or falls; "the main hinge on which the door of salvation turns;" those who let go this, do not hold the foundation; and though they may call themselves Christians, they give themselves the lie; for the church is a sacred society, incorporated upon the certainty and assurance of this great truth; and great it is, and has prevailed.

Bible Hub. Behind the Name. ABC News. Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 15 April BBC News. Retrieved 19 May The Washington Post.

Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 15 January Before the 21st century, only five popes unambiguously resigned with historical certainty, all between the 10th and 15th centuries.

The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February ISBN of the edition: Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 21 November Os Papas.

The Pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law. The Practical Prophet: Pastoral Writings.

New York: Paulist Press. Retrieved 27 January Huntington, Ind: Our Sunday Visitor. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.

London: J. A Greek English Lexicon. Retrieved 18 February — via perseus. Retrieved 7 November Oxford Dictionaries. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers.

Popes and the Tale of Their Names. Osservatore Romano. Retrieved 29 June Catholic Culture. Archived from the original on 9 August Fox News.

Archived from the original on 28 January USA Today. The Times. Archived from the original on 23 April For objection to this, see the Concordia Cyclopedia , p.

Barry, Rev. John F. New York: William H. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday. In John McManners ed.

The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Saints and Sinners, a History of the Popes. Yale University Press. The Story of Civilization.

The Reformation. A History of the Church. Herder and Herder. New York: Crossroad. History of Rome and the Popes in the Middle Ages.

London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner. Vatican Publishing House. Oxford Dictionary of the Popes. Prentice Hall. A Handbook on the Papacy.

Random House. Merchantville, New Jersey: Evolution Publishing. Western Civilization. Houghton Mifflin. A Short History of the Catholic Church.

New York: Fordham University Press. Popes of the Catholic Church. List of popes graphical canonised Papal names Tombs extant non-extant Antipope Pope emeritus Papal resignation Pope-elect.

Book Category Catholic Church portal. Papal elections and conclaves. Papal selection before Papal conclave —, —present. Ubi periculum Aeterni Patris Filius Cum proxime Ingravescentem aetatem Romano Pontifici eligendo Universi Dominici gregis De aliquis mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis Normas nonnullas Investiture Controversy.

Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma. Catholicism portal. Episcopate of the bishop of Rome. Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran St.

Popemobile Sedia gestatoria. Vatican City portal Catholic Church portal. Chair of Saint Peter St. Banking Vatican euro coins Communications.

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Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Definition of papal. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of papal in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Tuesday is the 41st anniversary of his first papal visit to Poland.

First Known Use of papal 14th century, in the meaning defined above. Learn More about papal. Time Traveler for papal The first known use of papal was in the 14th century See more words from the same century.

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He lived to see the victim of the church a victor—lived to see his memory honored by a nation freed from papal chains. As for Rome, no terms of objurgation were too strong for the papal court.

How many hundred thousands of the Albigenses, Waldenses, and Bohemians, hath the papal rage consumed! All who had separated from the Papal communion were alike outcasts, cut off from grace, children of perdition.

There arose a number of quasi-independent city states to the north of Rome, the papal capital. Are you learning new vocabulary?

Or do you just have an interest in words? Either way, this quiz is for you. See pope , -al 1. Words nearby papal papacy , papadopoulos , papagayo , papago , papain , papal , papal bull , papal cross , papal infallibility , papal states , papalism.

Words related to papal pontifical , apostolic. The primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter , to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus , giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built.

According to Catholic tradition , the apostolic see [9] of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the 1st century. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history.

In some periods of history, the papacy, which originally had no temporal powers , accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers.

However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now almost exclusively focused on religious matters.

In the early centuries of Christianity , this title was applied, especially in the east, to all bishops [21] and other senior clergy, and later became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century.

The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, that was held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome the pope as their head.

The Catholic Church teaches that Jesus personally appointed Peter as head of the Church, and the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles.

Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did.

Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero , although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine.

First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches.

Gradually, episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them. In their view, Linus, Cletus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, but not necessarily monarchical bishops.

Documents of the 1st century and early 2nd century indicate that the bishop of Rome had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, as even a letter from the bishop, or patriarch, of Antioch acknowledged the Bishop of Rome as "a first among equals", [41] though the detail of what this meant is unclear.

It seems that at first the terms "episcopos" and "presbyter" were used interchangeably. Ignatius of Antioch d and St. Irenaeus who recorded the linear succession of Bishops of Rome the popes up until their own times.

They also cite the importance accorded to the Bishops of Rome in the ecumenical councils , including the early ones. In the early Christian era, Rome and a few other cities had claims on the leadership of worldwide Church.

James the Just , known as "the brother of the Lord", served as head of the Jerusalem church, which is still honored as the "Mother Church" in Orthodox tradition.

Alexandria had been a center of Jewish learning and became a center of Christian learning. Rome had a large congregation early in the apostolic period whom Paul the Apostle addressed in his Epistle to the Romans , and according to tradition Paul was martyred there.

During the 1st century of the Church c. Clement I , at the end of the 1st century, wrote an epistle to the Church in Corinth intervening in a major dispute, and apologizing for not having taken action earlier.

Both sides agree Translated into English, the statement means "first among equals". What form that should take is still a matter of disagreement, just as it was when the Catholic and Orthodox Churches split in the Great East-West Schism.

They also disagree on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the Bishop of Rome as protos , a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium.

In the late 2nd century AD, there were more manifestations of Roman authority over other churches.

In , assertion of the primacy of the Church of Rome may be indicated in Irenaeus 's Against Heresies : "With [the Church of Rome], because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree Celebration of Easter on a Sunday, as insisted on by the pope, is the system that has prevailed see computus.

The Edict of Milan in granted freedom to all religions in the Roman Empire, [50] beginning the Peace of the Church. In , the First Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism , declaring trinitarianism dogmatic, and in its sixth canon recognized the special role of the Sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch.

In , the Edict of Thessalonica declared Nicene Christianity to be the state religion of the empire, with the name "Catholic Christians" reserved for those who accepted that faith.

Other tribes, such as the Visigoths , later abandoned Arianism in favour of Catholicism. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , the pope served as a source of authority and continuity.

Pope Gregory I c — administered the church with strict reform. From an ancient senatorial family, Gregory worked with the stern judgement and discipline typical of ancient Roman rule.

Theologically, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook; his popular writings are full of dramatic miracles , potent relics , demons , angels , ghosts , and the approaching end of the world.

Gregory's successors were largely dominated by the Exarch of Ravenna , the Byzantine emperor 's representative in the Italian Peninsula.

These humiliations, the weakening of the Byzantine Empire in the face of the Muslim conquests , and the inability of the emperor to protect the papal estates against the Lombards , made Pope Stephen II turn from Emperor Constantine V.

He appealed to the Franks to protect his lands. Pepin the Short subdued the Lombards and donated Italian land to the papacy.

The low point of the papacy was — The papacy came under the control of vying political factions. Popes were variously imprisoned, starved, killed, and deposed by force.

The family of a certain papal official made and unmade popes for fifty years. John mutilated the Imperial representatives in Rome and had himself reinstated as pope.

Conflict between the Emperor and the papacy continued, and eventually dukes in league with the emperor were buying bishops and popes almost openly.

In , Leo IX became pope, at last a pope with the character to face the papacy's problems. He traveled to the major cities of Europe to deal with the church's moral problems firsthand, notably simony and clerical marriage and concubinage.

With his long journey, he restored the prestige of the papacy in Northern Europe. From the 7th century it became common for European monarchies and nobility to found churches and perform investiture or deposition of clergy in their states and fiefdoms, their personal interests causing corruption among the clergy.

Since the beginning of the 7th century, the Caliphate had conquered much of the southern Mediterranean , and represented a threat to Christianity.

This fracture was caused more by political events than by slight divergences of creed. Popes had galled the Byzantine emperors by siding with the king of the Franks, crowning a rival Roman emperor, appropriating the Exarchate of Ravenna , and driving into Greek Italy.

In the Middle Ages , popes struggled with monarchs over power. From to , the pope resided not in Rome but in Avignon. The Avignon Papacy was notorious for greed and corruption.

The pope was understood to have the power to draw on the Treasury of Merit built up by the saints and by Christ, so that he could grant indulgences , reducing one's time in purgatory.

The concept that a monetary fine or donation accompanied contrition, confession, and prayer eventually gave way to the common assumption that indulgences depended on a simple monetary contribution.

The popes condemned misunderstandings and abuses, but were too pressed for income to exercise effective control over indulgences.

Popes also contended with the cardinals , who sometimes attempted to assert the authority of Catholic Ecumenical Councils over the pope's.

Conciliarism holds that the supreme authority of the church lies with a General Council, not with the pope. Its foundations were laid early in the 13th century, and it culminated in the 15th century.

The failure of Conciliarism to gain broad acceptance after the 15th century is taken as a factor in the Protestant Reformation. Various Antipopes challenged papal authority, especially during the Western Schism — In this schism, the papacy had returned to Rome from Avignon, but an antipope was installed in Avignon, as if to extend the papacy there.

Papal claims of superiority were a sticking point in reunification, which failed in any event. In the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople.

Protestant Reformers criticized the papacy as corrupt and characterized the pope as the antichrist. Popes instituted a Catholic Reformation [11] — , which addressed the challenges of the Protestant Reformation and instituted internal reforms.

Pope Paul III initiated the Council of Trent — , whose definitions of doctrine and whose reforms sealed the triumph of the papacy over elements in the church that sought conciliation with Protestants and opposed papal claims.

Gradually forced to give up secular power, the popes focused on spiritual issues. In , the First Vatican Council proclaimed the dogma of papal infallibility for those rare occasions the pope speaks ex cathedra when issuing a solemn definition of faith or morals.

Later the same year, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy seized Rome from the pope's control and substantially completed the Italian unification.

In , the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See established Vatican City as an independent city-state , guaranteeing papal independence from secular rule.

In , Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as dogma, the only time that a pope has spoken ex cathedra since papal infallibility was explicitly declared.

The Petrine Doctrine is still controversial as an issue of doctrine that continues to divide the eastern and western churches and separate Protestants from Rome.

The Catholic Church teaches that, within the Christian community, the bishops as a body have succeeded to the body of the apostles apostolic succession and the Bishop of Rome has succeeded to Saint Peter.

Scriptural texts proposed in support of Peter's special position in relation to the church include:.

I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail.

And when you have turned again, strengthen your brothers. Feed my sheep. The symbolic keys in the Papal coats of arms are a reference to the phrase " the keys of the kingdom of heaven " in the first of these texts.

Some Protestant writers have maintained that the "rock" that Jesus speaks of in this text is Jesus himself or the faith expressed by Peter.

The pope was originally chosen by those senior clergymen resident in and near Rome. In the electorate was restricted to the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, and the individual votes of all Cardinal Electors were made equal in The electors are now limited to those who have not reached 80 on the day before the death or resignation of a pope.

The last to be elected when not yet a bishop was Pope Gregory XVI in , and the last to be elected when not even a priest was Pope Leo X in , and the last to be elected when not a cardinal was Pope Urban VI in The Second Council of Lyon was convened on 7 May , to regulate the election of the pope.

This Council decreed that the cardinal electors must meet within ten days of the pope's death, and that they must remain in seclusion until a pope has been elected; this was prompted by the three-year sede vacante following the death of Pope Clement IV in By the midth century, the electoral process had evolved into its present form, allowing for variation in the time between the death of the pope and the meeting of the cardinal electors.

Acclamation was the simplest procedure, consisting entirely of a voice vote. The election of the pope almost always takes place in the Sistine Chapel , in a sequestered meeting called a " conclave " so called because the cardinal electors are theoretically locked in, cum clave , i.

Three cardinals are chosen by lot to collect the votes of absent cardinal electors by reason of illness , three are chosen by lot to count the votes, and three are chosen by lot to review the count of the votes.

The ballots are distributed and each cardinal elector writes the name of his choice on it and pledges aloud that he is voting for "one whom under God I think ought to be elected" before folding and depositing his vote on a plate atop a large chalice placed on the altar.

For the Papal conclave, , a special urn was used for this purpose instead of a chalice and plate.

The plate is then used to drop the ballot into the chalice, making it difficult for electors to insert multiple ballots.

Before being read, the ballots are counted while still folded; if the number of ballots does not match the number of electors, the ballots are burned unopened and a new vote is held.

Otherwise, each ballot is read aloud by the presiding Cardinal, who pierces the ballot with a needle and thread, stringing all the ballots together and tying the ends of the thread to ensure accuracy and honesty.

Balloting continues until someone is elected by a two-thirds majority. With the promulgation of Universi Dominici Gregis in , a simple majority after a deadlock of twelve days was allowed, but this was revoked by Pope Benedict XVI by motu proprio in One of the most prominent aspects of the papal election process is the means by which the results of a ballot are announced to the world.

Once the ballots are counted and bound together, they are burned in a special stove erected in the Sistine Chapel, with the smoke escaping through a small chimney visible from Saint Peter's Square.

The ballots from an unsuccessful vote are burned along with a chemical compound to create black smoke, or fumata nera.

Traditionally, wet straw was used to produce the black smoke, but this was not completely reliable.

The chemical compound is more reliable than the straw. When a vote is successful, the ballots are burned alone, sending white smoke fumata bianca through the chimney and announcing to the world the election of a new pope.

The Dean of the College of Cardinals then asks two solemn questions of the man who has been elected. First he asks, "Do you freely accept your election as Supreme Pontiff?

If he replies not , his reign begins at the inauguration ceremony several days afterward. The Dean asks next, "By what name shall you be called?

If the Dean himself is elected pope, the Vice Dean performs this task. The new pope is led through the "Door of Tears" to a dressing room where three sets of white papal vestments immantatio await: small, medium, and large.

Donning the appropriate vestments and reemerging into the Sistine Chapel, the new pope is given the " Fisherman's Ring " by the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church , whom he first either reconfirms or reappoints.

The pope assumes a place of honor as the rest of the cardinals wait in turn to offer their first "obedience" adoratio and to receive his blessing.

The Senior Cardinal Deacon announces from a balcony over St. Peter's Square the following proclamation: Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum!

Habemus Papam! We have a pope! He announces the new pope's Christian name along with his newly chosen regnal name. Until the pope's election was followed in a few days by the Papal coronation , which started with a procession with great pomp and circumstance from the Sistine Chapel to St.

Peter's Basilica , with the newly elected pope borne in the sedia gestatoria. After a solemn Papal Mass , the new pope was crowned with the triregnum papal tiara and he gave for the first time as pope the famous blessing Urbi et Orbi "to the City [Rome] and to the World".

Another renowned part of the coronation was the lighting of a bundle of flax at the top of a gilded pole, which would flare brightly for a moment and then promptly extinguish, as he said, Sic transit gloria mundi "Thus passes worldly glory".

A similar warning against papal hubris made on this occasion was the traditional exclamation, "Annos Petri non-videbis" , reminding the newly crowned pope that he would not live to see his rule lasting as long as that of St.

According to tradition, he headed the church for 35 years and has thus far been the longest-reigning pope in the history of the Catholic Church.

A traditionalist Catholic belief that lacks reliable authority claims that a Papal Oath was sworn, at their coronation, by all popes from Pope Agatho to Pope Paul VI and that it was omitted with the abolition of the coronation ceremony.

The Latin term, sede vacante "while the see is vacant" , [94] refers to a papal interregnum , the period between the death or resignation of a pope and the election of his successor.

From this term is derived the term sedevacantism , which designates a category of dissident Catholics who maintain that there is no canonically and legitimately elected pope, and that there is therefore a sede vacante.

One of the most common reasons for holding this belief is the idea that the reforms of the Second Vatican Council , and especially the reform of the Tridentine Mass with the Mass of Paul VI , are heretical and that those responsible for initiating and maintaining these changes are heretics and not true popes.

For centuries, from on, those elected to the papacy were predominantly Italians. The current regulations regarding a papal interregnum —that is, a sede vacante "vacant seat" —were promulgated by Pope John Paul II in his document Universi Dominici Gregis.

During the "sede vacante" period, the College of Cardinals is collectively responsible for the government of the Church and of the Vatican itself, under the direction of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church ; however, canon law specifically forbids the cardinals from introducing any innovation in the government of the Church during the vacancy of the Holy See.

Any decision that requires the assent of the pope has to wait until the new pope has been elected and accepts office.

In recent centuries, when a pope was judged to have died, it was reportedly traditional for the Cardinal Camerlengo to confirm the death ceremonially by gently tapping the pope's head thrice with a silver hammer, calling his birth name each time.

The pope's seals are defaced, to keep them from ever being used again, and his personal apartment is sealed. The body lies in state for several days before being interred in the crypt of a leading church or cathedral; all popes who have died in the 20th and 21st centuries have been interred in St.

Peter's Basilica. A nine-day period of mourning novendialis follows the interment. It is highly unusual for a pope to resign.

Popes adopt a new name on their accession, known as papal name , in Italian and Latin. Currently, after a new pope is elected and accepts the election, he is asked "By what name shall you be called?

The new pope chooses the name by which he will be known from that point on. The senior Cardinal Deacon, or Cardinal Protodeacon, then appears on the balcony of Saint Peter's to proclaim the new pope by his birth name, and announce his papal name in Latin.

It's customary when referring to popes to translate the regnal name into all local languages. The official list of titles of the pope, in the order in which they are given in the Annuario Pontificio , is:.

The best-known title, that of "Pope", does not appear in the official list, but is commonly used in the titles of documents, and appears, in abbreviated form, in their signatures.

VI", the "PP. The title "Pope" was from the early 3rd century an honorific designation used for any bishop in the West.

From the 6th century, the imperial chancery of Constantinople normally reserved this designation for the Bishop of Rome.

In Eastern Christianity , where the title "Pope" is used also of the Bishop of Alexandria, the Bishop of Rome is often referred to as the "Pope of Rome", regardless of whether the speaker or writer is in communion with Rome or not.

It is commonly used in the slightly abbreviated form "Vicar of Christ" Vicarius Christi. While it is only one of the terms with which the pope is referred to as "Vicar", it is "more expressive of his supreme headship of the Church on Earth, which he bears in virtue of the commission of Christ and with vicarial power derived from him", a vicarial power believed to have been conferred on Saint Peter when Christ said to him: "Feed my lambs Feed my sheep" John — The first record of the application of this title to a Bishop of Rome appears in a synod of with reference to Pope Gelasius I.

This title "Vicar of Christ" is thus not used of the pope alone and has been used of all bishops since the early centuries.

The difference is that the other bishops are vicars of Christ for their own local churches, the pope is vicar of Christ for the whole Church.

On at least one occasion the title "Vicar of God" a reference to Christ as God was used of the pope.

The title "Vicar of Peter" Vicarius Petri is used only of the pope, not of other bishops. The use of the term to refer to bishops in general is reflected in the terms " Roman Pontifical " a book containing rites reserved for bishops, such as confirmation and ordination , and "pontificals" the insignia of bishops.

Pontifex Maximus , similar in meaning to Summus Pontifex , is a title commonly found in inscriptions on papal buildings, paintings, statues and coins, usually abbreviated as "Pont.

Max" or "P. Although the description " servant of the servants of God " Latin : servus servorum Dei was also used by other Church leaders, including Augustine of Hippo and Benedict of Nursia , it was first used extensively as a papal title by Pope Gregory I , reportedly as a lesson in humility for the Patriarch of Constantinople, John the Faster , who had assumed the title " Ecumenical Patriarch ".

It became reserved for the pope in the 12th century and is used in papal bulls and similar important papal documents. From until , the Annuario Pontificio also included the title " Patriarch of the West".

This title was first used by Pope Theodore I in , and was only used occasionally. Indeed, it did not begin to appear in the pontifical yearbook until On 22 March , the Vatican released a statement explaining this omission on the grounds of expressing a "historical and theological reality" and of "being useful to ecumenical dialogue".

The title Patriarch of the West symbolized the pope's special relationship with, and jurisdiction over, the Latin Church —and the omission of the title neither symbolizes in any way a change in this relationship, nor distorts the relationship between the Holy See and the Eastern Churches , as solemnly proclaimed by the Second Vatican Council.

In the medieval period , " Dominus Apostolicus " "the Apostolic Lord" was also used. Pope Francis signs some documents with his name alone, either in Latin "Franciscus", as in an encyclical dated 29 June [] or in another language.

The pope's signature is followed, in bulls of canonization, by those of all the cardinals resident in Rome, and in decrees of ecumenical councils, by the signatures of the other bishops participating in the council, each signing as Bishop of a particular see.

Papal bulls are headed N. In general, they are not signed by the pope, but Pope John Paul II introduced in the mids the custom by which the pope signs not only bulls of canonization but also, using his normal signature, such as "Benedictus PP.

XVI", bulls of nomination of bishops. In heraldry , each pope has his own personal coat of arms. Though unique for each pope, the arms have for several centuries been traditionally accompanied by two keys in saltire i.

This is blazoned : "two keys in saltire or and argent, interlacing in the rings or, beneath a tiara argent, crowned or". The 21st century has seen departures from this tradition.

In , Pope Benedict XVI, while maintaining the crossed keys behind the shield, omitted the papal tiara from his personal coat of arms, replacing it with a mitre with three horizontal lines.

Beneath the shield he added the pallium, a papal symbol of authority more ancient than the tiara, the use of which is also granted to metropolitan archbishops as a sign of communion with the See of Rome.

Although the tiara was omitted in the pope's personal coat of arms, the coat of arms of the Holy See, which includes the tiara, remained unaltered.

In , Pope Francis maintained the mitre that replaced the tiara, but omitted the pallium. He also departed from papal tradition by adding beneath the shield his personal pastoral motto: Miserando atque eligendo.

The flag most frequently associated with the pope is the yellow and white flag of Vatican City , with the arms of the Holy See blazoned: "Gules, two keys in saltire or and argent, interlacing in the rings or, beneath a tiara argent, crowned or" on the right-hand side the "fly" in the white half of the flag the left-hand side—the "hoist"—is yellow.

The pope's escucheon does not appear on the flag. This flag was first adopted in , whereas the previous flag had been red and gold.

Although Pope Benedict XVI replaced the triregnum with a mitre on his personal coat of arms, it has been retained on the flag.

Pope Pius V reigned — , is often credited with having originated the custom whereby the pope wears white, by continuing after his election to wear the white habit of the Dominican order.

In reality, the basic papal attire was white long before. The earliest document that describes it as such is the Ordo XIII , a book of ceremonies compiled in about Later books of ceremonies describe the pope as wearing a red mantle, mozzetta , camauro and shoes, and a white cassock and stockings.

In its Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ, the Council established the following canons: []. If anyone says that the blessed Apostle Peter was not established by the Lord Christ as the chief of all the apostles , and the visible head of the whole militant Church , or, that the same received great honour but did not receive from the same our Lord Jesus Christ directly and immediately the primacy in true and proper jurisdiction: let him be anathema.

If anyone says that it is not from the institution of Christ the Lord Himself, or by divine right that the blessed Peter has perpetual successors in the primacy over the universal Church, or that the Roman Pontiff is not the successor of blessed Peter in the same primacy, let him be anathema.

If anyone thus speaks, that the Roman Pontiff has only the office of inspection or direction, but not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the universal Church, not only in things which pertain to faith and morals, but also in those which pertain to the discipline and government of the Church spread over the whole world; or, that he possesses only the more important parts, but not the whole plenitude of this supreme power; or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate, or over the churches altogether and individually, and over the pastors and the faithful altogether and individually: let him be anathema.

We, adhering faithfully to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith, to the glory of God, our Saviour, the elevation of the Catholic religion and the salvation of Christian peoples, with the approbation of the sacred Council, teach and explain that the dogma has been divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when carrying out the duty of the pastor and teacher of all Christians by his supreme apostolic authority he defines a doctrine of faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, through the divine assistance promised him in blessed Peter, operates with that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer wished that His church be instructed in defining doctrine on faith and morals; and so such definitions of the Roman Pontiff from himself, but not from the consensus of the Church, are unalterable.

But if anyone presumes to contradict this definition of Ours, which may God forbid: let him be anathema. Among the principal duties of bishops the preaching of the Gospel occupies an eminent place.

For bishops are preachers of the faith, who lead new disciples to Christ, and they are authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach to the people committed to them the faith they must believe and put into practice, and by the light of the Holy Spirit illustrate that faith.

They bring forth from the treasury of Revelation new things and old, making it bear fruit and vigilantly warding off any errors that threaten their flock.

Bishops, teaching in communion with the Roman Pontiff, are to be respected by all as witnesses to divine and Catholic truth.

In matters of faith and morals, the bishops speak in the name of Christ and the faithful are to accept their teaching and adhere to it with a religious assent.

This religious submission of mind and will must be shown in a special way to the authentic magisterium of the Roman Pontiff, even when he is not speaking ex cathedra; that is, it must be shown so that his supreme magisterium is acknowledged with reverence, the judgments made by him are sincerely adhered to, according to his manifest mind and will.

His mind and will in the matter may be known either from the character of the documents, from his frequent repetition of the same doctrine, or from his manner of speaking.

And this is the infallibility which the Roman Pontiff, the head of the College of Bishops , enjoys in virtue of his office, when, as the supreme shepherd and teacher of all the faithful, who confirms his brethren in their faith, by a definitive act he proclaims a doctrine of faith or morals.

And therefore his definitions, of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church, are justly styled irreformable, since they are pronounced with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, promised to him in blessed Peter, and therefore they need no approval of others, nor do they allow an appeal to any other judgment.

For then the Roman Pontiff is not pronouncing judgment as a private person, but as the supreme teacher of the universal Church, in whom the charism of infallibility of the Church itself is individually present, he is expounding or defending a doctrine of Catholic faith.

The infallibility promised to the Church resides also in the body of Bishops, when that body exercises the supreme magisterium with the successor of Peter.

To these definitions the assent of the Church can never be wanting, on account of the activity of that same Holy Spirit, by which the whole flock of Christ is preserved and progresses in unity of faith.

On 11 October , on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council 60 prominent theologians, including Hans Küng , put out a Declaration, stating that the intention of Vatican II to balance authority in the Church has not been realised.

A principal source of present-day stagnation lies in misunderstanding and abuse affecting the exercise of authority in our Church.

The pope's official seat is in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran , considered the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, and his official residence is the Apostolic Palace.

He also possesses a summer residence at Castel Gandolfo , situated on the site of the ancient city of Alba Longa. Until the time of the Avignon Papacy , the residence of the pope was the Lateran Palace , donated by Roman emperor Constantine the Great.

The pope's ecclesiastical jurisdiction the Holy See is distinct from his secular jurisdiction Vatican City. It is the Holy See that conducts international relations; for hundreds of years, the papal court the Roman Curia has functioned as the government of the Catholic Church.

The names "Holy See" and " Apostolic See " are ecclesiastical terminology for the ordinary jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome including the Roman Curia ; the pope's various honors, powers, and privileges within the Catholic Church and the international community derive from his Episcopate of Rome in lineal succession from the Saint Peter , one of the twelve apostles see Apostolic succession.

Consequently, Rome has traditionally occupied a central position in the Catholic Church, although this is not necessarily so.

The pope derives his pontificate from being Bishop of Rome but is not required to live there; according to the Latin formula ubi Papa, ibi Curia , wherever the pope resides is the central government of the Church, provided that the pope is Bishop of Rome.

As such, between and , the popes lived in Avignon , France see Avignon Papacy , a period often called the "Babylonian captivity" in allusion to the Biblical narrative of Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah living as captives in Babylonia.

Though the pope is the diocesan bishop of Rome, he delegates most of the day-to-day work of leading the diocese to the Cardinal Vicar , who assures direct episcopal oversight of the diocese's pastoral needs, not in his own name but in that of the pope.

Though the progressive Christianisation of the Roman Empire in the 4th century did not confer upon bishops civil authority within the state, the gradual withdrawal of imperial authority during the 5th century left the pope the senior imperial civilian official in Rome, as bishops were increasingly directing civil affairs in other cities of the Western Empire.

This status as a secular and civil ruler was vividly displayed by Pope Leo I 's confrontation with Attila in The first expansion of papal rule outside of Rome came in with the Donation of Sutri , which in turn was substantially increased in , when the Frankish ruler Pippin the Younger gave to the pope the land from his conquest of the Lombards.

The pope may have utilized the forged Donation of Constantine to gain this land, which formed the core of the Papal States.

This document, accepted as genuine until the 15th century, states that Constantine the Great placed the entire Western Empire of Rome under papal rule.

In , Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish ruler Charlemagne as Roman Emperor , a major step toward establishing what later became known as the Holy Roman Empire ; from that date onward the popes claimed the prerogative to crown the Emperor, though the right fell into disuse after the coronation of Charles V in As mentioned above, the pope's sovereignty over the Papal States ended in with their annexation by Italy.

Popes like Alexander VI , an ambitious if spectacularly corrupt politician, and Pope Julius II , a formidable general and statesman, were not afraid to use power to achieve their own ends, which included increasing the power of the papacy.

Papal bulls , interdict , and excommunication or the threat thereof have been used many times to increase papal power.

In , Innocent III placed England under interdict until King John made his kingdom a fiefdom to the Pope, complete with yearly tribute , saying, "we offer and freely yield The Bull Regnans in Excelsis in excommunicated Elizabeth I of England and declared that all her subjects were released from all allegiance to her.

The Bull, Inter gravissimas , in established the Gregorian calendar. Under international law, a serving head of state has sovereign immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of other countries, though not from that of international tribunals.

International law treats the Holy See , essentially the central government of the Catholic Church, as the juridical equal of a state.

It is distinct from the state of Vatican City , existing for many centuries before the foundation of the latter.

It is common for publications and news media to use "the Vatican", "Vatican City", and even "Rome" as metonyms for the Holy See. Most countries of the world maintain the same form of diplomatic relations with the Holy See that they entertain with other states.

Even countries without those diplomatic relations participate in international organizations of which the Holy See is a full member.

It is as head of the state-equivalent worldwide religious jurisdiction of the Holy See not of the territory of Vatican City that the U.

Justice Department ruled that the pope enjoys head-of-state immunity. It was in relation to the latter that, in November , the United States Court of Appeals in Cincinnati decided that a case over sexual abuse by Catholic priests could proceed, provided the plaintiffs could prove that the bishops accused of negligent supervision were acting as employees or agents of the Holy See and were following official Holy See policy.

In April , there was press coverage in Britain concerning a proposed plan by atheist campaigners and a prominent barrister to have Pope Benedict XVI arrested and prosecuted in the UK for alleged offences, dating from several decades before, in failing to take appropriate action regarding Catholic sex abuse cases and concerning their disputing his immunity from prosecution in that country.

The pope's claim to authority is either disputed or not recognised at all by other churches. The reasons for these objections differ from denomination to denomination.

Primacy is regarded as a consequence of the pope's position as bishop of the original capital city of the Roman Empire , a definition explicitly spelled out in the 28th canon of the Council of Chalcedon.

These churches see no foundation to papal claims of universal immediate jurisdiction , or to claims of papal infallibility.

Several of these churches refer to such claims as ultramontanism. In calling the pope the "Antichrist", the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century.

Not only dissidents and heretics but even saints had called the bishop of Rome the "Antichrist" when they wished to castigate his abuse of power.

What Lutherans understood as a papal claim to unlimited authority over everything and everyone reminded them of the apocalyptic imagery of Daniel 11 , a passage that even prior to the Reformation had been applied to the pope as the Antichrist of the last days.

Protestant denominations of Christianity reject the claims of Petrine primacy of honor, Petrine primacy of jurisdiction, and papal infallibility.

These denominations vary from simply not accepting the pope's claim to authority as legitimate and valid, to believing that the pope is the Antichrist [] from 1 John , the Man of Sin from 2 Thessalonians —12, [] and the Beast out of the Earth from Revelation — This sweeping rejection is held by, among others, some denominations of Lutherans: Confessional Lutherans hold that the pope is the Antichrist, stating that this article of faith is part of a quia "because" rather than quatenus "insofar as" subscription to the Book of Concord.

The WELS still holds to this statement. Historically, Protestants objected to the papacy's claim of temporal power over all secular governments, including territorial claims in Italy, [] the papacy's complex relationship with secular states such as the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and the autocratic character of the papal office.

Groups sometimes form around antipopes , who claim the Pontificate without being canonically and properly elected to it. Traditionally, this term was reserved for claimants with a significant following of cardinals or other clergy.

The existence of an antipope is usually due either to doctrinal controversy within the Church heresy or to confusion as to who is the legitimate pope at the time schism.

Briefly in the 15th century, three separate lines of popes claimed authenticity see Papal Schism.

Even Catholics do not all agree whether certain historical figures were popes or antipopes. Though antipope movements were significant at one time, they are now overwhelmingly minor fringe causes.

In the earlier centuries of Christianity, the title "Pope", meaning "father", had been used by all bishops. Some popes used the term and others did not.

Eventually, the title became associated especially with the Bishop of Rome. In a few cases, the term is used for other Christian clerical authorities.

In English, Catholic priests are still addressed as "father", but the term "pope" is reserved for the head of the church hierarchy.

This name, based on the black colour of his cassock, was used to suggest a parallel between him and the "White Pope" since the time of Pope Pius V the popes dress in white and the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples formerly called the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith , whose red cardinal's cassock gave him the name of the "Red Pope" in view of the authority over all territories that were not considered in some way Catholic.

In the present time this cardinal has power over mission territories for Catholicism, essentially the Churches of Africa and Asia, [] but in the past his competence extended also to all lands where Protestants or Eastern Christianity was dominant.

Some remnants of this situation remain, with the result that, for instance, New Zealand is still in the care of this Congregation.

Some new religious movements within Christianity, especially those that have disassociated themselves from the Catholic Church yet retain a Catholic hierarchical framework, have used the designation "pope" for a founder or current leader.

The Cao Dai , a Vietnamese faith that duplicates the Catholic hierarchy, is similarly headed by a pope.

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